Most Effective Pictorial Health Warning Labels With Messages About Smokers Harming Others


In a 2016 study, our team found that pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) with messages about smokers harming others were more effective than messages about smokers harming themselves. To test the effectiveness of pictorial HWLs with more specific messagea about smokers harming others, we conducted a follow-up survey in Shanghai, Beijing, and Shenzhen in 2017. The new HWLs tested included messages about self-harm, harming family or children, harming others in smoke-free places, and anti-cigarette gift giving.

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