Product regulation (nicotine volume/concentration, safety/hygiene, ingredients/flavors)

32 countries regulate nicotine concentration/volume

32 countries prohibit use of harmful ingredients (except nicotine) in e-liquid

31 countries regulate quality of e-liquid content, require safety and quality evaluation or regulate flavors in e-liquid

Thirty-two countries regulate the amount (concentration/volume) of nicotine in e-liquids — in the EU the threshold concentration is 20mg/mL (Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, England, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Moldova, Netherlands, Northern Ireland, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Scotland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and Wales).

Thirty-two countries do not permit the use of ingredients (other than nicotine) that pose a risk to human health in heated or unheated form in nicotine-containing e-liquid (Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, England, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Moldova, Netherlands, Northern Ireland, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Scotland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and Wales).

Thirty-one countries regulate the quality of nicotine and other ingredients used to manufacture the e-liquid; require products to pass safety and quality evaluation; or regulate flavors that can be used in e-liquids (Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, England, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Northern Ireland, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Scotland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and Wales).